PIPING AND DETAILS
• Basically the system piping and details for each industry or refining not much different, the difference may occur only under specific conditions.
• pipe installation work can be divided into 3 parts:
1. Above ground
3. Under water
1. Installation of pipes above ground
`Installation of pipes above the ground can be performed on the pipe rack (pipe rack), on the support-pipe supports, and the stand pipe (sleeper`).
Installation of pipes above ground pipes may also be included equipment that is:
1. Column pipe and vessel
2. Exchanger pipe
3. Pipe pump and turbine
4. Pipeline compressor
5. Utility pipes
2. Installation of underground pipe
For the pipe below ground processes can be classified into two parts:
1. Gravity flow pipe system
For pipe with gravity flow systems, piping lines must have a slope (slope). Piping by gravity flow can be seen as follows, for example on a building:
1) Water clear, including rain water, water purifier
2. Pressurized pipe flow system
3. Installation of pipe under water
Co: Installation of oil and gas pipelines under the sea
In the industrial development of oil and gas industry is well known that high-risk and high gain is certainly require a huge investment, so the company is highly dependent by the investors. Distribution of investment in Oil & Gas industry, among others:
- Platform 26%
- Surface Well 2%
- Subsea Well 34%
- Subsea Hardware 8%
- Pipeline & Control line 30%
The data required in the installation of pipes, among others:
- Oceanographic Data
o To determine the type of equipment used
o Installation methods used
o As a basic reference design pipeline itself
- Soil Investigation
o To calculate the strength of the soil against the movement of the pipeline that may occur at the time after operation
o Changes in soil strength due to the influence of waves and sea currents.
o Keperluant trenching (making a trench for the installation of a buried pipeline under the sea if it is needed)
- Bathymetric Data
o Knowing the depth of the sea route along the pipe installation under the sea
- Sub-bottom profiling (Sea-floor mapping) Data
o To Knowing the state of the soil surface and soil conditions on the seabed.
Design pipeline include:
1. Line Sizing: Determining the size of the pipe diameter and thickness of pipe used.
2. Route Selection: Selection of Subsea pipeline route and the pictures in a picture called Route Plan.
3. Hydrodynamic Stability Analysis: Calculating the strength of the pipe to the strength of currents and waves of sea water during pipe located on the seabed before the buried in trenches.
4. Soil Movement: Analyzing the structure of the soil against the possibility of soil movement in the pipeline is installed.
5. Pipe Protection Method and Burial Requirements: Design a protection against the pipeline when installed on the seabed without submerged in the ditch and determining whether to be planted in the moat.
6. Pipe Buckling Analysis: Analyzing power of the pipe when the installation of the arch.
7. Pipe Lay Analysis: Determining the movement of ships
8. Riser Design: Pipe installed above the platform
1. Subsea Pipeline Installation has a high safety risk.
2. The cost of installation at sea is very expensive and far more expensive than the installation on land.
3. Pipelay barge, the numbers are limited, so schedule the installation of the pipeline must be on time, if the delay occurs then the additional cost becomes very expensive.
4. In the event of damage or leaking pipes, the cost of the repairs are very expensive.